E.1 Reflexes

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Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system, which is involved in responses to stimuli. An response involves a series of neurons that are called a reflex arc. The example below illustrates the response to pain.

  1. Pain receptors (nerve endings of sensory neurons) detect pain.
  2. The impulse is carried from the pain receptor to the central nervous system.
  3. The impulse travels to the ends of the sensory neuron where message are passed to the relay neuron.
  4. The relay neurons then passes the impulse to motor neurons, which carry the impulse out of the CNS. The impulse travels to the muscle.
  5. The impulse is finally carried to the muscle fiber, which caused the muscle to contract, creating the physical reaction to pain.
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